Methodological recommendations for correct writing of projects and receiving grants
A grant is irretrievable money that is awarded to organizations and individuals for non-profit activities and registered in a proposal approved by the grantor. In order for an application to fulfill its role - it has received resources for the implementation of the project, it needs to be correctly and clearly written for the perception of the grantor.The project only has the chances of success, when it is logical, the project objectives meet the purpose, means of implementation - a task, when management - simple and effective, budget - real.First of all, we need to define what we mean by the term "project".The project is a complex of activities,which are carried out to achieve clearly defined goals within the time allowed and with the financial resources allocated to it (the budget).
Characteristic features of the project that distinguish it from other types of activities are:
focus on the goal - the project is aimed at achieving a certain goal,that is, it is not only a set of measures implemented, for example, the number of seminars conducted. It is extremely important that these measures help to achieve the specific goal that you have set for yourself. Such a goal could be, for example, improving the mechanism for providing administrative services to residents of the territorial community.In this case, the seminars will serve as a means of achieving this goal;defined duration - the project is a certain integrity, limited in time. It has a definite start date, a defined period of duration, and hence a definite end date, we must achieve the intended goal within the time allowed for it,so the implementation of the project requires significant organizational skills. The projects for the provision of international technical assistance are very strict in meeting the deadlines. If it is determined that the completion date of the project, for example, July 1, then this means that after this date you can not spend any hryvnia from the project budget. If soDespite this, you will spend money after this time, nobody compensates them, and you will be forced to compensate the expenses from the budget of your organization (or local community);uniqueness - this characteristic means that the project is something extraordinary, that this is not a routine activity that has been repeatedly executed. Example,will not be a project for the daily work of civil servants to address issues that citizens are asking for. This is a repetitive work, in addition, it is a typical task of the public authority. Instead, the project is a set of measures that have not yet taken place in this configuration, although perhaps many of them were carried out separately.It is precisely such a complex of actions that should be non-repetitive, rather than separate actions by themselves.For example, you already have some seminars for executive officials, but you are now planning to create an entire training cycle, and this particular cycle of workshops has a specific purpose. This is an exceptional set of events, because until now, such a cycle has not yet been carried out.high degree of complexity - the project consists of many closely related measures. Such measures are carried out in a certain non-random sequence, they must be conducted in accordance with the scheduled schedule at a specified time. As a rule, a significant number of people are involved in the project implementation process, as well as external institutions,enterprise or organization, which further complicates the project management process.Each project has its own dedicated budget, a team of executors selected for the project implementation, as well as relevant material resources. You can not complete the project without first defining and providing these tools.
In addition to the above,you can add the following project features:
• unambiguous definition of target groups and final beneficiaries (individuals or legal entities that receive certain benefits as a result of project implementation);• clearly defined instruments for coordination, management and financing;• availability of monitoring and evaluation system;• appropriate financial and economic justification, from which it should be understood that the benefits of the project exceed the cost of it.
To succeed in finding financial support, you need to:• to orientate in the process of applying for grants;• find suitable financial sources and analyze them;• Using a professionally designed application, convince the donor that you need to fund.
The project, which deserves funding, should be:- Clear and clear - contain precise descriptions of expenditures for which financing is required and a description of the work that will be performed by your organization;- True - contain factual materials: tables,Schemes and other materials if needed (you may need a preliminary study to assess the needs, as well as the possible attitude of people to what your organization suggests);- important - both for your organization and for solving the problem to which the given project is directed.The long-term effect of the project may be an additional attractive factor;- effective - the result of the project should bring significant public benefits;- realistic - the proposed work should be feasible. It is necessary to assess the available (or expected) resources, as well as the extent to which the planned activity is in accordance with them;- economical - have a high result at low cost "donor";- actual - if possible, help to solve urgent social problems of the present;- respond to the interests of the donor and its charity policy.Your project needs to be considered from two perspectives: first, the project should be understandable for external perception by experts,which should evaluate it for a number of indicators that are traditionally used for this by experts assessors. The main indicators for evaluating project applications are usually:• urgency of the problem;• clarity and logic of presentation;• The realism, feasibility and rationality of the proposed solution;• the reasonableness and cost-effectiveness of the proposed expenditures;• accessibility, social significance, stability of expected results, etc.On the other hand, the project should contribute to solving a specific social problem.
A clear problem can be identified by the following key aspects or characteristics:Essence or content -it is necessary to determine what the current situation compares with and on what basis describe the various symptoms of the problem.Organizational or geographical location - where was the problem situation identified? How widespread is it?Temporary perspective - how long is there a problem? what period of time appears, what time periods or periods? What are the trends of its development?Absolute and relative magnitude - how serious and important is the problem in absolute terms? How many people does it relate to? How and what does it affect? How and for whom it is important? Who and what will receive from its solution?Consequences - in particular, attention should be paid to the possible negative consequences of inactivity, that is,what can the resolution of this problem lead to?Attempts to solve the problem - who has already taken attempts to solve this problem? What was done? What results have been obtained?To submit a successful project application, you must first answer these questions.
An equally important aspect in project preparation is stakeholder analysis.Stakeholders are individuals or organizations that can directly or indirectly, positively or negatively influence a project or experience its impact. The identification and analysis of stakeholders should be accompanied by the search for answers to the following questions:1) To whom can the project have an impact?2) Who can influence the project? Whose active support is essential for the success of the project?3) Who can help in the process of project implementation?4) Who can see the project as a threat to their interests?5) Who would like to be involved in the project?For example, the interested parties of the conditional project can include:• residents of the territorial community;• certain structural subdivisions of the district state administration;• local government bodies in your area;• local government bodies of neighboring communities;• mass-media;• entrepreneurs who carry out their activities in the district, etc.Once you identify the problem and have stakeholder analysis, you are faced with the task of selecting donors that are most likely to fund your project.
Getting started on the project application
Despite the fact that each donor has its own requirements for the execution of project applications,in their structure it is possible to isolate the most frequently repetitive elements. We offer a universal format for writing a project that will enable the application to include virtually all possible sections that meet in the requirements of different donors:Title page. The cover sheet serves as a calling card for your application.It must contain all the information necessary for the donor. Most organizationslanders require that the title page occupy one page, and in many of them there is a developed sample at all that should be used by the applicant. Even if the grantor does not require the front page, it is also desirable for the experts,and for the organization of the landlord, and for the grant recipient to submit it. If the form of the cover page is given, you simply have to fill out this form carefully, which may include, for example, the following items:the name of the project - should be short (no more than 10 words), send the main idea of the project and be "noticeable" to immediately draw attention.The name can be fairly general or have a subtitle. For example, Children Street, or, for example, with a subtitle: Children Street. Approbation of new methods of socialization of neglected teenagers. It's not advisable to use word play and vivid epithets in the project's name, because it's sometimes difficult to translate it into English (or another foreign language).And in many cases you will have to translate the project application.The applicant organization is the name of the organization that executes the project, its address, telephone, fax and number of the current account. If an organization has its own site or an official page on social networks, please provide them. However, in this case you have to be surethat when representatives of the donor visit the site of the organization, they will see relevant information there, instead of "news" three years ago.In the same section, a separate line indicates co-executors (organizationspartners) of the project.partner organizations - state, municipal or non-governmental organizations that will take part in the implementation of the project,their full name and address. it is clear that to indicate the organizationspartners in the project you have the right only by prior arrangement and with the consent of their leaders. In this case, it is advisable to attach confirmation letters from these organizations to the application.project manager - the name, title, position in organization, address, telephones, fax number,e-mail address, etc. It will be with this person that the donor will contact if additional information is needed. The head is responsible for the implementation of the project, is responsible to the donor for the efficiency of spending money.We recommend creating a working e-mail in advance.whose address will include the name of the organization (or real name or surname of the project manager).the head of the organization - if the project manager is not at the same time and the head of the organization of the performer, then it is advisable to indicate the name and contact of the head of the organization.geography - indicate the territory where the project will be implemented: village, town, city,district, region, several regions, etc.the term of the project - calculated in months and usually takes no more than one year.cost of a project - this indicates the required amount of funding for the whole period or for the first year of the project (in which currency the budget is usually indicated by the donor). In addition,you must specify the full cost of the project (including your own contribution and funds received from other sources not protected by the legislation of ukraine).Summary / Annotation of the project. On the first page of the application form for the grant may be left a special place for the resume. A summary is often referred to as a project annotation.Abstract - A summary of the main essence of the project. Recommended volume:• for a shortened application (project concept) - 1 paragraph (3-10 lines);• for the full application - 1 page (200-300 words).This is one of the most important parts of the application. Most experts read at first only the annotation. If she likes it, only then goes to reading the full application.Therefore, the abstract should be as clear, concise, specific and expressive as possible.The abstract is a chance to convince the donor of the importance and attractiveness of the project. This is where the project should represent and give answers to the controversial questions: who, what, when, where, why and in what way.The abstract should include at least one sentence:• the organization of the applicant and his previous achievements (who will implement the project);• on the terms of execution and the territory of the project (when and where the project will be implemented);• about the problem (why this project is needed);• the purpose and objectives of the project (which will result as a result);• on methods and resources (how the project will be implemented);• the total cost of the project;the applicant's own contribution and the amount requested from the donor (how much money is required).Experts need to know exactly what you want. However, do not forget that this is a summary, that is, a short and clear text. Donors usually indicate how many characters, words, or lines can have an annotation. Though,that in the annotation you have to reflect all the main ideas of the project, do not forget about this requirement. Write the annotation in the last turn, when all other sections of the project application have already been written. This will allow you to characterize your project with maximum clarity.Introduction. In this part of the application, you describe your organization as a grant applicant. Usually,Applications are funded based on the reputation of the applicant organization, and not only on the quality of the project itself. In the introduction you substantiate your reliability and explain why the application of your organization is worthy of support.The recommended amount of entry is 0.5-2 pages. Even if you are not the first to contact a particular donor, write this section so,as if he was not familiar with your organization at all. The introduction, as well as the budget, is drawn to the most careful attention and analyzed most carefully. Consequently, these sections should be written so that the donor does not have the slightest doubt in your ability to complete the tasks and correctly dispose of the funds.What can you say about yourself in the introduction?• mission, purpose and tasks of your organization;• how much time do you exist, how much your financial, material, and human resources are upgraded;• Uniqueness of your organization (facts like you were the first in a country or region who started working in this area);• your partners;• some of your most significant achievements;• Your success in projects similar to those proposed;• financial support that your organization has received from other sources (other than the donor you are referring to). You can add support letters from other donors to the application.Most likely, experts who will read your applicationnot so familiar with the professional intricacies of your organization. Therefore, it is important not to abusive narrow-term terminology.Mismatching the organization profile with the priorities of the competition (for example, an environmental organization submitting a project on gender issues) may be a reason for the rejection of the application. Therefore, in caseswhen the direction of the organization does not match the priorities of the competition, or the scope of the project is new to your organization, it is advisable to consider submitting an application from a specific partnership with the participation of your organization. In this case, the main organization in the project, which has a more profitable summary, should speak in the project.Rememberthat for your grant, your reliability, which is substantiated in the introduction, may be more important than the other part of the application. Since potential donors should be chosen for their potential interest in organizations of your type and in similar projects, use the introduction to justify the link between your interests and the interests of the donor. In general,Granitration requires a systematic approach. Therefore, in order to successfully seek funding, be prepared in advance to ensure that your organization (and personally project managers) are well-known in the chosen area of activity, build strong relationships with potential partners, make good advertising to your organization.Formulation of the problem.Since joining, the grantor must understand the scope of your interests, what you are working on. Now you have to accurately describe the specific problem that you are going to solve with your project.In terms of a donor, the project must address a specific problem in a particular area. No problem - no project.Describe the situation in this section.which prompted you to proceed with the development of the project. Describing the essence of the issue, remember that you must convey the assessment of the situation as an overview of the problem that will be solved by implementing your project, so do not forget about the close link between this description and the purpose of the project.For the reader, it should be obvious that the implementation of the project, though insignificant,but will improve the status of a certain group of people, the situation in the field of your organization.One should not dramatize the situation, excessively exaggerate, telling about the death of domestic culture, degradation of society, etc., hoping to spoil the experts. It is necessary to show a clear vision of the origins of a particular problem,its essence and ways to solve it.The picture of the results of your project implementation, depicted by you, should inspire hope. If not, then the donor can declare your project inappropriate for funding.The text of this section needs to be built on emotional assumptions. Argumentated, logically combined considerations will convince the donor thatthat your expectations regarding the results of the project are realistic and not based on guesses.Think about whether you need to emphasize the severity of the problem. You expect to call the donor an interest in your project, because the problem you are about to solve is sharper than others or the way to solve the problem,which you propose to donors, are more effective than the approaches presented in other projects.It should be based on the fact that the project evaluation commission consists of people who are guided in the current state of the industry, your region, the social group of clients described in the application. But you should also be prepared for the fact that experts can not know something. To be sure, present the situation transparently, clearly and truthfully, based on proven information and data. In any case, a conscientious analysis of the problem will be evaluated positively.It should be remembered that the formulation of a problem always determines a negative process or trend, as well as a lack, restriction or dissatisfied need. So,the problem should be defined as the existing negative situation, rather than the absence of the desired situation. A properly formulated problem sounds like a description of the dynamics of the unwanted deviation of a particular parameter (a combination of parameters) of a particular object or process. the problem must be localized and rely on the root causes (root) that led to its occurrence.A properly formulated problem removes the main question of experts: "Why is this project?" (Why and why the donor has to spend its resources).Recall that the requirements described are not to be the internal needs of your organization, unless you are looking for means to improve your own work efficiency. In particular,the lack of money from you is, in the donor's view, not a problem that grantees have to help solve. Everyone understands that you are applying for financial assistance. This is apparent from the very fact of filing an application. It is important to answer the question that you need money to solve a problem.What will you do to get the money you received? This is exactly what should be written in this section of the application.When you work on this section, you have:• It is logical to link the task performed by your organization with the problems that you are going to try to solve;• clearly identify all the problems that you will work on, make sure that this is a task;in principle, can be resolved in a definite real time by your own forces for certain limited funds;• Confirm the problem with additional materials, statistics, group statements, private letters from your customers and professionals working in your industry, etc. (tables and schemas are likely tooverload this section, so save them for applications; best of all give some of the most effective data that clearly illustrates the situation);• Be realistic - do not try to solve all world problems in the next six months.In the description of the problem, avoid general phrases, for example: "collected insignificant information","Statistics on the issue are absent" and others. If things are really so, be sure to draw the attention of experts to the thesis about the dangers of the consequences of a lack of information in the area of interest to you.Keep in mind that many applicants do not understand the difference between the problem itself and the methods of solving it. For example, an organizationwhich helps elderly people in one of the city's districts, argues that its customers are urgently needed minibuses to travel in the city. The organization has calculated that there is a "need" in buses, because many residents of the district can not come to the doctor's appointment, etc. The mistake here is that instead of staging the actual problem,The authors of the application jumped immediately to the next item - Methods. The presence of buses is just a means of delivering the elderly to the location of medical and other necessary (but without special transport, inaccessible) services to them.In addition to this method of solving this problem, there may be many more. Example,you can try to persuade relevant organizations to decentralize services, provide delivery of goods and services at home or hire assistants who will help the elderly. It is possible that the purchase of minivans would ultimately solve this problem in the best possible way, but it is important that this is the very method, not a problem and no need.Purpose and objectives. A well-prepared project must be logically constructed. The introduction should prepare the reader for the perception of the next section - Problem statement, Accordingly, Problem statement should have a logical transition to the goals and objectives.The purpose is a general declaration of what needs to be done.It describes the purpose of the project - directly its final result.So, the purpose of the project is to describe the situation that will occur when the project is implemented in accordance with your plans. It should be understood that the public problem is usually difficult to solve by implementing only one project,the goal can be achieved by combining efforts in many projects and programs.The goal is determined by the causes of existing problems that need to be addressed. The goal should be formulated without objection, ie "What do you want?" Instead of "What do you want?".Statements of this kind can not be quantified.their main purpose is to show the type of problem that the project is concerned about.The purpose of the project does not necessarily have to be one. There may be several goals, they may be short-term, medium-term and long-term, but necessarily interdependent. The achievement of short-term goals, as a rule, depends on the achievement of the long-term goal.It should be noted that the short-term goals apply to the target groups of the project, the medium-term can cover the wider public, and long-term concerns the whole society.The task is a step-by-step milestone to be realized during the project activity. The set of solved tasks is the expected result of the project implementation,that is the achieved goal.Task - these are the possible directions for improving the situation that you described in the section Problem statement. If you always consider them in this context when writing the project tasks, you will easily understand how they should look. For example, if the problem is thatthat some children in your school read a few times worse than other children of their age, the task may be that, before the end of the project, a certain percentage of such children learned to read much better than before. They will read better than their peers, who were previously at one level with them, but were not covered by the project.In such tasks it is necessary to indicate who is covered by the project, what should change, in what direction, how much and for what term.Therefore, the project's objectives should be as precise as possible. they should have quantitative data on the degree of utility of the project. Some authors of the projects, striving to be specific, take figures "from the ceiling." Example,the organization writes that its task is "... reducing the unemployment rate in the N-rayon region by 10% in one year." The question arises, where did this figure come from? Typically, this is written simply because it looks solid. It seems that this way you can demonstrate impressive achievements. However, quantitative indicators should be reliable and such,trustworthy. It is possible that one program will not be able to achieve this. It is possible that the average unemployment can be reduced by 2-6%, and in this case 5% will already be a good indicator, and 6% - as much as possible. Then 10% seems to be just a fabrication that demonstrates your incompetence in this area.There are two types of tasks - productive and qualitative. Characteristic features of productive tasks:- their results are specific products - computer database, library, information advisory center, etc.;- productive tasks are checked statistically - the number of people who have undergone retraining and received a new qualification in a small business;the number of buildings connected to the purification system; amount of water used in liters; number of sown crops per hectare, etc.Characteristic features of high-quality tasks:- the result of performing high-quality tasks is "elusive" things - improving knowledge, obtaining new skills, acquiring qualifications, etc.;-the measure of quality change can be tangible when observed, detected by an individual interview, through surveys, etc.;- the quantitative results of a qualitative task can not be limited only by the number of retraining people, but should also take into account the number of people who actually work in the field,for which they actually went through retraining, using the knowledge gained.Well-defined project tasks should answer the following questions:What should I change? How many changes should I make? Where will the changes take place? For whom are these changes made? When will the changes take place?Developing project tasksone must adhere to such a scheme of considerations: from the general - to the partial, from the problem - to the purpose (general goals) and objectives (specific goals) and methods. Then in the opposite direction, that is, to verify that the fulfillment of specific tasks will serve the achievement of the goals and the solution of the problem or part of the problem.in the case of a grant smaller than expected (perhaps two or three times), you should be prepared to reduce the number of tasks without changing the overall goal of solving the problem.Methods. The Methods section describes the types of activities or activities,what needs to be done to get the planned results with available and requested resources. There are two main aspects to be clarified in this section:1) What is your strategy in achieving the desired results?2) Why did you choose it from all other possible strategies?The answer to the last question requires knowledge of projects similar to yours. Who else is working on solving this problem in your area or do you still have money? What methods have been used before and are applied now and with what results?Demonstrating your familiarity with similar projects and explaining your choice of tools used,you increase your level of reliability and competence in the eyes of the donor.So, you must justify your choice of methods and specify in this section what will be done, who exactly will be carrying out the activity, how and when, in what sequence, which resources will be used. Your approach to solving the problem for the donor should look attractive.Target groups. Application forms and competitive documentation often operate with two concepts - the target group and beneficiaries - beneficiaries.The term "target group" is wider. Under it we understand the whole environment, the situation we are trying to change. This may be future event participants in the project, clients, recipients of services, etc.On the other hand, the beneficiaries are the direct recipients of assistance, in other words, certain, limited number of legal entities or individuals, social groups, which obtains certain benefits arising from the implementation of the project.In this section, the number of participants in the project activities and the selection principles should be as clearly as possible.The application must clearly describe who will benefit from the project implementation, who will be the direct recipient of the services.The number of the target group of the project should be substantiated and real. It has to do with the organization's capabilities and timing of the project.Assumptions / Risks. The importance of this section is thatthat the project will not all go according to the plan. The implementation of the project and its ability to self-regulation will be influenced by external factors that themselves go beyond the control of the project.Project developers should make assumptions about conditions that are not subject to their control (risks).And ensuring the correctness of these assumptions is one of the most complex aspects of project design. The full application should reflect thorough elaboration of this question.One of the functions of the project developers is to identify such external factors and, if possible, to take into account in the plan of project implementation mechanisms,that will allow or to work with these factors, or to observe their influence. The probability of these conditions and the significance of their implementation should be presented in the overall assessment of the risk level of the project. Some of them will be critical to the success of the project, while others will be insignificant.Expected results.The implementation of any project should have at the output of obtaining specific positive changes. Consequently, when formulating the expected results, the developer of the project should proceed from the assumption that these results will be something that can be characterized by certain words, indicating positive changes that have occurred under the influence of project activities.The "Expected Results" section should include the distribution of content in several constituents, namely:1. The immediate expected results that should be obtained as a result of project activities. These results should be described as a clear list of facts that clearly correspond to the objectives and main objective of the project.Think about itwhat results will be obtained when carrying out each specific action (measure), write down them. This will allow you not to miss important results. If you encounter difficulties in developing this section of the project, it turns out that the project's objectives are not specific enough.2. Implications - Mid-term outcomeswhich are the logical result of a combination of immediate results.3. Long-term effect - this is a kind of forecast for the future, that is, the impact that will be felt in society after the end of the project.Usually, organizations devote little time to reflect on this part of the project,but the results are criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the project and demonstrate how developers understand what they are seeking and how they will achieve it.It is desirable that all results have quantitative or qualitative indicators.The quantitative result (what will be done?) Captures the number of services performed, event participants,recipients of specific assistance, the number of books issued, etc.A qualitative result (what has changed?) Should reflect the positive changes that will occur as a result of events, services, etc.Describe all the results, but select the most important ones. Remember that the results should be measurable. Try to answerhow much better (more / less / stronger) has become, etc. It is better to give some good and concrete results than a set of obscure and vague.If, in the description of the problem, you indicate the data that characterizes the state of affairs of the project, you can demonstrate how the situation should change for the better due to the implementation of your project.Evaluation. An application that will include a plan for assessing the effectiveness of the project and a mechanism for evaluating its results will indicate that your organization is professionally and responsibly suited to the implementation of the proposed project.First of all, it is worth assessing the overall performance of the work, in order to understand how well the goals have been achieved.Such an assessment is called the evaluation of the results. Secondly, an assessment can be made to obtain information about the course of the project. This is needed to correct the project directly during execution. Such an assessment is called the evaluation of the progress of work.Measured tasks prepare the basis for effective evaluation. If you find it difficult to determinewhich criteria are best used to evaluate the project, revisit the Goal and Tasks. They are probably not specific enough.Many project evaluation plans are subjective in nature. Subjective assessments usually tell us that people are thinking about the project, but rarely evaluate the concrete results of his work.Subjectivism often affects the evaluation of results. It is especially noticeable if you evaluate the results of your work yourself, feeling that your continued funding depends on the obvious good results. One way to achieve a more objective, and often more professional assessment, is toto invite any third-party organization to make an assessment for you. It is sometimes possible that such an organization itself proposed an assessment plan that may be presented to the donor as part of your application. This will not only provide a more objective assessment, but will also increase the level of trust in you.The evaluation mechanism is a set of tools,by which the achievement of the planned results during the implementation of the project and after its completion will be assessed.
The overall effectiveness of the project consists of several components, the main ones being cost-effectiveness and efficiency.
Economics is a measure of manifestation of economics. Measurement of cost effectiveness takes placeHomes for comparing costs and received products and results. For example, the cost of publishing one copy of a directory for residents and the costs of raising the level of knowledge and skills of one employee participating in the project should be compared with improving the level of service of the population. This will allow you to evaluatehow the resulting effect from the project implementation correlates with the costs incurred.
Effectiveness is a measure of the content of the activities carried out. The effectiveness is measured by the level of achievement of the planned project results, their degree of sustainability, and their impact on the environment.A good project effectively and permanently solves the problems that it has been implementing, and has a positive impact on its environment.
Project viability / further financing. Further financing is another important component of the project. No donor wants to finance you constantly. An organization that decides to support your projectwants from the very beginning to have a guarantee that the activity you started will continue after the end of the project (although some activities, if the goals have been successfully achieved with their help, may stop or change significantly as the situation changes).Donors usually want to knowwhere do you get the money after the grant period has expired. assurances that you will seek to find a new donor is not enough. You must submit a plan that would convince the donor that your organization has (or will receive) enough funds to continue implementing the project tasks after the end of the grant period. Really,if you already have limited funds, what will happen when your project is launched? It may be that current funding will not benefit you if you need to ask for more sums in the next year than in the current one.Remember, the best plan for future funding is a plan that does not require further donor support.At least,you can try to describe the promotional activities and the significant dissemination of the results achieved by the project. The goal is to convince the grantor that the awareness of other potential donors and the public about the project activity will allow you to attract their attention at a level that allows you to hope that the idea will be supported by someone else.yet, or, at least, will have a certain resonance in society. Most often this is quite sufficient for the grantor.Otherwise, think about the answers to the questions below.What are the non-financial sources of funding after the project? Will there be local private or public institutions that are ready to continue financing,if your project is successful? Can you get a written confirmation of such readiness? Is the project itself able to provide the necessary funds, for example, at the expense of the services provided in the framework of the project, providing customers with information, etc.? Is not ready to pay someone for the services you are doing for your customers?Project implementation plan. One of the indicators of project quality is the correctness of planning and timing of activities and other actions from which it develops. Therefore, the project should not simply contain a schedule of measures that are included in it, but also be sufficiently saturated (but not excessive).First, decompose each design event into a sufficient number of components (actions), which then need to be correlated with each other in order to install:• sequence - in what order should these actions take place?• Dependence - Does the action depend on the beginning or completion of any of the other actions?In the best way, this can be demonstrated in this example: the construction of a home is reduced to several separate, but interdependent actions:- digging the foundation pit and foundation;- wall erection;- installation of doors and windows;- plastering of walls;- roof mounting;- laying of water and sewage.The sequence regulating digging and laying the foundation before building walls, while dependency is not possible to begin the installation of doors and windows before the walls reach a certain height, or that you can not finish plastering before completely conducted electricity and sewerage.In the case of actionnot related, are performed by one and the same person, between them there is also dependent (eg, can not simultaneously held two seminars, which involved the same team).Some donors require all of the group in stages, and they are combined sequentially (as on time performanceand the content of the activity). Each stage should be clearly marked in time:a) the beginning and end of the stage are given;b) the total time necessary for its realization is determined.It is desirable that each stage be consistently targeted to one of the specified tasks.For example, there are 5 tasks defined, so it is desirable to have 5 stages too.The work plan (schedule) of the project explains each phase of its implementation or the main element that the experts could not understand what approach will apply your regular employees and volunteers, and how they will carry out the project. Chart that shows that when you do, will only add to the clarity of your application.So,stages of preparation of the action schedule are:1. Determination of the list of basic actions.2. Breakdown of the main actions into separate tasks.3. Determination of the sequence and interdependence of actions and tasks.4. Estimate the start, duration and completion of each action and each task.5. Indicating the progress of the project or milestones,which can be evaluated performance.6. Determination of the professional experience necessary to carry out activities and tasks.7. Distribution of tasks among project team members.
Reporting Preparing and submitting reports is an important part of any project. The grant application must indicate the frequency of submission of reports,and also by whom they will be presented and what form they will have. You must specify a report type, such as regular or final reports.Request a donor reporting form requirement, maintain close contact with donors by e-mail, telephone and other means. Expenditures for this depend on the volume of the project.It does not matter how often you run reports - they are conducted monthly or annually. In any case, your report should reflect the level of implementation of the project. Otherwise, give reasons for non-fulfillment.
Budget. In considering applications, the expert council of the competition first of all pays attention:
- on the total cost of the project;- requested funds;- the contribution of the organization itself to the costs of its implementation;- attracted funds from sponsors and others.Different donors put forward various budget requirements. Private funds usually ask less detailed information than government agencies. Therefore, before drafting the draft budget, carefully read the requirements of the donor to compile it. Knowthat the budget of your project will be most explored in several positions, namely:• compliance with the requirements of the donor (questionnaire, form of the table, currency calculation, etc.);• the compliance of the indicated amounts of expenses from various types of work to the real state of affairs and prices at the moment;• degree of financial participation of the grant applicant in relation to the requested amount (the amount of the own contribution);• the ratio of expenses for administrative expenses and direct costs of project implementation, etc. When planning a budget, it is useful to look at the Goals and Tasks sections and Methods for developing a suitable plan. For example, the programwhich does not require paid employees for their execution, will be cheaper,than a permanent staffing program. Each budget should be based on the purpose and tasks and the proposed methodology. in the context of the project, make a list of required posts, used equipment, transport costs, etc. It is important to consider, otherwise it may turn outthat the budget and the project do not coincide.Very often, designers ask the donor organizations a question like: "To what amount can we count on the development of the budget of our project?". In principle, the project budget should automatically follow from what you plan to implement.However, most often, donor organizations limit the scope of the grant,indicating the maximum, and sometimes the minimum possible amounts. If the possible size of the grant has already been specified, you need to match the size of your project and the amount of tasks performed with the specified amount.Remember that the maximum possible size of a grant does not mean that you need to calculate the budget,based on the total amount indicated. A balance needs to be struck between the real financial needs of your project and the capabilities and desires of the donor.As a rule, the project budget consists of three main parts: wages, basic expenses and indirect costs.
1. Payment of labor
1.1. SalaryPayments to staff members of the organization,who will work full or part-time on the implementation of this particular project. Not all donor organizations are liberal about this budget item. Often, the benefits are those projects in which wages are made at the expense of the organization that will implement the project,or the project is carried out on a voluntary basis (to find out, we encourage you to study the philosophy of granting grants to the donor).Accrual is subject to the legislation in force in the country where the project will be implemented.Why do you need to indicate the full amount and the part made at the expense of other resources? There are several reasons. It is important for a donor to knowthat you make your contribution, in addition to carrying out work on the project. First of all, it gives you an opportunity to assess whether your organization has any resources to continue to work after the completion of funding.Your resources (volunteers, employees, premises, equipment, wages, etc.).) allow the grantor to reduce the cost of your project and send funds to other projects. Remember that the personal contribution of the organization to the donor is the best guarantee of your intentions to bring the project to the end.The material contribution from other sources of funding indicates the interest of other organizations in achieving the goals of your project, as well as your organizational capabilities of the fundraiser (that is, as a fundraising specialist).If you use the work of volunteers, document it as if it were paid,and refer these data to the organization's own contribution. Keep detailed records of all the work done.1.1. Fees and contractsThis section shows the labor costs of those people or organizations involved in the implementation of individual project actions. As a rule, this happenswhen the organizers of the project themselves are not able to perform certain types of work. For example: the library connects to the Internet. Software and software engineers are hiring a software engineer or service provider to install hardware and software.In order to make payment, a contract of a contract or a contract for the implementation of works shall be entered into,and after the completion of an act of acceptance of works.
2. Basic costs2.1. EquipmentThis section lists the equipment needed to purchase or lease, for use in project implementation. Try to specify suitable equipment with indication of technical characteristics, for example:Asus K56CB Notebook; 15.6 "/ Intel Pentium 2117U (1.8 GHz) / RAM 4 GB / HDD 500 GB / NVIDIA GeForce GT740M 2 GB / DVD-RW / LAN / Wi-Fi / BT / webcam / DOS.The Equipment section specifies only the material resources that will be added to the register of fixed assets of the organization (put on its balance), including office equipment, furniture, etc.Be sure to first find out if the donor is encouraged to rent equipment, or whether it is preferable to purchase it.2.2. Material supportThis section includes consumables, in particular stationery, reagents, toners, cartridges, and others. at the indication of equipment and material supply the unit price is given,their number and total cost.2.3. Travel and travel expensesInclude all travel related expenses here. Each trip is marked with an indication of the route, the cost of tickets at both ends, the number of days, the number of sent persons, the amount of daily expenses and living expenses.Do not write immediately large amounts without proper clarification, so as not to raise unnecessary issues in the donor organization. Daily allowances are allowed only within the limits defined in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine. remember that in case of success,Project Manager and Chief Accountant can expect at least two business trips - to sign an agreement with the donor and final report.2.4. Other expensesThis section specifies the costs that were not included in the previous categories. For example, costs may be included for seminars, conferences, printing services,payment for communication services, rental of premises, payment for utilities, purchase of literature, etc.If the project involves holding a seminar or conference, then a program of the event, speakers, etc. must be developed.If the project provides for the purchase of literature or electronic media,then you need to provide a list with data about the name, author, number of copies, price per unit and total cost.
3. Indirect costsThis section, as a rule, indicates costs that are not directly related to any specific project activity,but necessary for the normal functioning of the organization and the successful implementation of its tasks. Not all donor organizations agree to pay for indirect costs.Please clarify which funding rules and standards exist in donor organizations before claiming compensation for this item of expenses.Attachments.Applications typically include three types of documents:1) information about the organization (obligatory);2) information about the performers (obligatory);3) additional materials (preferably).
Information about the organization. In this section, you need to reinforce your reliability, the ability to implement the project and explain,why your application deserves support and selection of the grantor.You must give as much as possible a full description of the "chronicle of successes and victories" of your organization. Information should be compiled in the "western" version, ie in the opposite direction: from the current state - to the process of creating an organization. Fine,if you provide a list of donors with whom we have already cooperated, a list of completed projects and the dates of their implementation. In the event that previous projects were thematically completely different from the current one, then it is not necessary to add them to the specified list.It is worth adding several samples of your previous activity (brochures, reviews in the media,letters from grateful beneficiaries, etc.).Letters of support or recommendations should be written in an arbitrary format competent with the subject of the project by the person and justify the need to finance your project, its brief description, show the grantor, the importance of the proposed project,as well as give a description of the project manager as a person capable of realizing the project's objectives. At the end of the letter, the address and phone number of the person who recommends is indicated.It is useful to have several letters of support from previous donors, your organization partners, authorities, etc.If you mentioned other organizations in your project,who will assist you in the implementation of the project or provide any technical, material, moral, financial and other assistance, then you need to provide the appropriate form on the official letterhead of this organization. The organization must inform her that she is really familiar with the project,considers it relevant and allocates to the project implementers specific funds or provides other assistance. Such a letter is signed by the head of the organization, its chief accountant and is circular sealed by the organization. Please note once again that those projects which, for their implementation, attract additional sources of funding are the benefits.Information about performers. The project should include a list of its direct performers. The project manager, accountant and assistant (project manager) must be staff members of your organization. Almost all others (consultants, specialists, lecturers, etc.) can be involved with other organizations.The summary of each project participant must also be executed in the "western" version, that is, from the present situation to the beginning of employment. Well, if among the people involved in your project, there will be well-known personalities - experts on some issues or people who in the organization donors know from the positive side.If many actors from different organizations are involved in the project, it is advisable to give a diagram of the organization of work.The organizational chart illustrates the organizational structure of the project graphically. From the scheme it should be clear who the organization (s) manages, who is in the subordination, who interacts with each other. The scheme should be simple and clear.When writing the pcb, answer the following questions:• who is responsible for all project work?• Who is responsible for specific sections of the work plan?• How are the activities and responsibilities distributed between the representatives of your organizations and other co-workers?• Who and how will control the execution of works?• Who is accountable?Additional materials. If the organization donor allows you to submit any additional materials together with the project (there can be a restriction of no more than 2-3x pages) - select the best from the existing and add (for example, letters of thanks from authorities or organizationsbeneficiaries or others).If the Donor organization does not provide for additional materials from the applicants, add the existing one! Only the materials should be of high quality. Additional materials should be just the most necessary. Experts do not judge the quality of the project by its weight, so save money on paper and postal items.
Style of writing.Write in plain and accessible language, truthfully and with inspiration, but without exaggeration. Special details, specific examples and relevant statistics will help you to express your opinion more closely.The style of your presentation was sure. For example, instead of writing "we would like ..." or "our project may reach ...",write "we will do" and "the project will reach ...".Remember that your application should be pleasant and easy to read, therefore:• do not select very small font;• number the pages;• If your application has more than 10 pages, make up the content;• Use tables, diagrams and statistics only where necessary.• do not do a lot of applications;presrrels, resume;• Do not load the reader with plenty of terms, but if necessary, make comments with explanations. Keep in mind that donor staff has to analyze applications in different areas and industries;• do not include cumbersome suggestions; try to write simple and affordable;• write your project on behalf of thoseWho will directly benefit from its implementation, focus on their needs and what effect will be from your project.If your application is written in a foreign language, please contact the carrier of this language. After completing the blank option, postpone your application and return to it within a few days.During this time, a change in the emotionality of the author will come with a critical perception of a third-party observer, which will help you to improve your application. Let her read by a person whose views you respect.
Practical advice on writing grant applications.1. Write clearly and clearly2In the process of preparing a project, do not overlook the following basic rules:use words that signify completeness (prepare, distribute, reduce, enlarge, organize, produce)use the SMART criteria by formulating the tasks:· Specificity;· Computation;· Territoriality;· Realism;· Timeliness.3Avoid slang words, correct grammatical errors, follow a confident and bold tone; Express thoughts briefly, clearly, interestingly.Estimated volume of individual sections of the projectOrganization presentation - up to 1 pageFormulation of the problem - up to 1 pageThe purpose of the project is 1 paragraphThe tasks of the project - from 0.5 to 1 pageProject implementation plan -up to 1 pageMethods of project implementation - up to 1 pageEstimates - up to 2 pagesAdditional data - up to 10 pagesGeneral criteria for project evaluationAny donor will pay special attention to the clarity of the goals, objectives and capabilities of your organization.The donor hopes to see a clear and logical connection between the specifics of your organization's activity and the problem posed.How realistic is the goal? Will the project lead to a change in the current situation? Can you seewho will use the results of the project? How clear are the methods and project plan? Are there clear methods for evaluating the results of a project? How realistic and sufficient for the accomplished tasks to be accomplished? Is the financial and moral support of other sponsors shown? Is the competence of the project implementers shown?Lessonsreceived during the preparation of the projectIf you have received a grant for this project - great! If not, do not despair. Ask the fund for written or oral explanations on the reasons for your failure (if the donor uses this practice), study and correct the weaknesses of your project. Do not be afraid to lose some time nowin order to achieve the goal. Learn from your mistakes. People who write great projects never lost faith in the right choice and tried again and again. Only through hard work and great patience will you win.